Metal structure is a construction facility - iron skeleton (frame), consisting of longitudinal and transverse reinforcing girders. Without the use of metal structures is impossible to imagine any construction project, the scope of their use is unlimited and includes: residential buildings, commercial and industrial buildings. The technology of prefabricated objects is widely used in the construction of small pavilions and warehouses, as well as in the construction of sports stadiums, large shopping centers, private houses and apartment high-rise buildings.
Primarily, should be marked, the metal structure is the engineering system, which is able to act as an independent facility or be part of a complex architectural. Structure supporting member protrudes, and has strengthened and supported function.
Advantages of metal structures
Steel structures have a number of advantages.
Primarily, they have a substantially lower weight, than concrete products, and, at the same time, They differ significantly greater strength. High load capacity allows to take heavy loads with relatively small cross sections.
Besides steel structures are characterized by high manufacturability, industrially, reliability, maintainability and impermeability.
In comparison with the constructions of reinforced concrete, stone or wood, they have a significantly lower weight, from which it follows that, as light, high density metal, they are the most simple and easy to manufacture, transportation, mounting.
Speaking about the benefits of metal structures, it is impossible not to pay attention to the opportunity to give them a more elegant form, compared to bulky designs of reinforced concrete.
It should also be noted, that the metal structure with increasing loads can be strengthened, due to which they are most fully apply to the reconstruction and repair of yield easily.
The use of steel structures in the construction industry
Metal structures are a key element bearing prefabricated buildings.
Among the many varieties of, separately allocate such basic groups:
The second and third type are the most modern in the demand for the construction industry, as they allow for the minimum time to erect buildings and any number of storeys of the building, configuration and destination.
Besides, All metal is divided into subtypes according to parameters:
- the form (arch or straight walls);
- view (solid or rod system);
- functional (supporting or protecting).
Scope of metal structures in the construction industry is incredibly wide, Their main purpose - the construction of skeletons of public and industrial buildings (high-rise buildings, factories, shops, plants, garages, Dokov, hangars, etc.).
Design of light steel structures allows to realize and often unique architectural designs, characterized by the complexity of the drawings: museums, theaters, concert halls, sports palaces, exhibition halls… Introduction of innovative technologies in the design area, It allows you to achieve excellent results – buildings, whose appearance is striking lightness and airiness.
Today, there are a set of rules, based on which the design of prefabricated metal structures of buildings and structures. It takes into account all the requirements of building standards and regulations, fully comply with the required degree of solidity, reliability and durability, like structure as a whole, and each of its elements individually, in predetermined operating conditions.
Calculation of steel structures. Features
Despite the existence of classes and hanging membrane coatings, cable assemblies and other rare systems, basis for the vast majority of steel structures protrude rigidly interconnected shaft elements. therefore, when the product calculations such systems, most appropriate, guided by the theory of core systems.
To clarify, should once again understand the terminology. So, the term "beam" means the part of us will, working, mainly, of sgibanie, and "core" – respectively, compression and tension.
Starting from the definition of stress, there is a calculation of metal structures. Voltage – strengthen cooperation between the microparticles of the material, which has a positive effect on the resistance to the elements outside the load, while respecting the conditions of preservation and integrity of the material.
Variability voltage values at various points of the structure is a consequence qualities, inherent in the material, the geometry of its components and loading the configuration.
- normal voltage calculated, the ratio depends only on the outside influence of internal forces (of force, in the event of a longitudinal impact or torque, respectively, in the case of vertical) to the section geometry, serving as the geometrical characteristics. Based on this, we can conclude, the voltage determined by the degree of loading section.
- moment of resistance - is characterized by resistance, resulting from the bend, and is a geometrical parameter section. The bend steel girder calculate the maximum voltage by constructing diagrams of normal stresses.
- shear stresses and shear force, are directed along the same axis, defined by the formula Q⋅S / b⋅J, which allows to easily calculate the ratio in the case of bending in the vertical and in the longitudinal plane.
- The diagram of tangential stresses - to calculate the shear stress at a certain point it is necessary to know the static moment of the severed part of the section. Its value corresponds to the product of two indicators: Square cut off part and the distance between the centers of gravity of the severed parts and the whole section.
- Calculation of welds produced using molecular adhesion, arises between the materials under the influence of high temperature. To create a reliable monolithic items must correctly calculate the welds. There are many types of metal coupling (butt, corner, Splices, tees, etc.), each of which is necessary to calculate the weld connected individually. Among all types of existing connections, not only metals, most durable and reliable weld precisely speaking.
- Calculation of bent elements. In that case, If the beam is bent in the longitudinal plane, calculation procedure analogous to stresses. In the calculation should take into account the geometry, that is to establish which axis becomes the bending axis.
Principles of design of steel structures. Design drawings and calculations
Steel design - process, consisting of a number of important steps.
At the first stage the customer makes the executor TOR, which lists in detail all the necessary parameters: layout, type of future construction, etc.. After final approval, experts begin the process of preparation of project documentation. At the same time produce an assessment of levels of deformation, and determining the load, to be provided by the construction of ready for future construction.
After that, the calculation and design of metal structures, including the preparation of technical documentation, They will be completed, proceeds to the next stage - the compilation of detailed drawings.
All engineering calculations, produced in the process of development of design documentation, directly related to the manufacture of steel structures, implemented special programs. With their help, developed three-dimensional object, calculated density ratios, indicators of stability and security, performed measurements and calculations.
At this stage, remove all errors found, produce the final reconciliation calculations and make the necessary changes.
Since the operational performance required to fully comply with the prescribed technical standards and safety standards, Design of steel structures - a task, dealt with by specialists from various branches of the construction. Be sure to take into account the expected performance of buildings.
The completed project is a set of documents, Technical circuit comprising, refined classification, a detailed drawing of the metallic structure, Calculations used alloys and their characteristics.
How much does the development of the project?
The cost of designing metal structures is calculated individually, depending on a number of key factors: total work, level of difficulty, and timeframes. budgeting, relating to the design and development of the necessary metal construction drawings, is performed after providing all of the required customer data source.
How we can help? Advantages of working with us
interior architecture studio and "INSIGHT" – company, behind which, more than ten years of successful experience in the implementation of all types of design works "turnkey" and providing a wide range of high quality services in a variety of ways.
- the drafting of the future interior and full documentation package;
- supervision and support;
- site visits for preliminary assessment work;
- the creation of 3D-visualization.
Studio "Insight" provides services for the design of metal structures of any complexity. Innovative technologies in the design, combined with the highest qualifications and professionalism of our specialists, allow anyone to take us to implement the project at the highest level at optimum cost.
We appreciate the trust, rendered to us, therefore, in order to achieve the best result, for every booking specialists "INSIGHT" individually develop a unique approach. Are alert to the needs and wishes of the customer, and strictly observing each of them, vast experience in this field, It allows us to offer the customer well and your vision perfect realization of his project.
Cooperation with "Insight" – it is always a guaranteed result, surpassing the expected!
With the world every year there is a tendency to an increase in production of metal constructions. The reason for the popularity of such structures is their excellent performance, economy, exterior aesthetics, resistance to external negative impacts and durability.
Currently, the reality is, that the number of customers, preferring light, openwork and, in the same time, reliable structures based on metal structures, steadily growing.
The architectural solution, architectural project, sketch, concept, building, repairs, 3d model, architectural visualization. The cost of developing in St. Petersburg. Creating a project in St. Petersburg. Construction and repair.
price: from 15 000p. time: from 5 days